Structural Electronics Applications, Technologies, Forecasts 2015-2025

Market Research Reports

Structural electronics (SE) is one of the most important technological developments of this century. It forms a key part of the dream, formulated decades ago, of computing disappearing into the fabric of society. It also addresses, in a particularly elegant manner, the dream of Edison in 1880 that electricity should be made where it is needed. SE is often biomimetic – it usefully imitates nature in ways not previously feasible. It is a rapidly growing multi-billion dollar business.

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Structural electronics involves electronic and/or electrical components and circuits that act as load-bearing, protective structures, replacing dumb structures such as vehicle bodies or conformally placed upon them. It is of huge interest to the aerospace industry which is usually the first adopter, the automotive industry and in civil engineering both with compelling needs but its reach is much broader even than this. Electric cars badly need longer range and more space for the money and, in civil engineering, corrosion of reinforced concrete structures and tighter requirements for all structures, including early warning of problems, are among the market drivers for structural electronics.

The common factor is that both load bearing and smart skin formats occupy only unwanted space. The electronics and electrics effectively have no volume. More speculatively, electronics and electrics injected into unused voids in vehicle bodies, buildings etc., say as aerogel, could also provide this benefit without necessarily being load bearing but possibly providing other benefits such as heat insulation. Some present and future applications of structural electronics are morphing aircraft using shape memory alloys, car with printed organic light emitting diode OLED lighting on outside and inside of roof and printed photovoltaics over the outside generating electricity supercapacitor skin on an electric car replacing the traction battery as energy storage, smart skin as a nervous system for an aircraft and solar boats and aircraft running on sunshine alone. In London, a piezoelectric smart dance floor generates electricity and smart bridges across the world have sensors and more embedded in their concrete, all forms of structural electronics as it is increasingly the way to go.

1.1. Introduction
1.2. What is it?
1.3. Tackling urgent problems
1.4. Primary benefits
1.5. Maturity by applicational sector
1.6. Objectives and benefits
1.7. Materials and processes currently favoured
1.8. Smart skin
1.9. Component types being subsumed
1.10. Future proof
1.11. How to make structural electronics
1.11.1. A host of new technologies
1.12. Market forecasts

2.1. Aerospace
2.2. Cars
2.3. Consumer goods and home appliances
2.4. Bridges and buildings

3.1. Basics
3.2. Detailed analysis
3.3. NASA leading the way
3.4. Early progress at plastic electronic

4.1. Description
4.2. Wire and cable smart cladding
4.3. Many other examples
4.4. NASA open coil arrays as electronic smart skin
4.5. American Semiconductor CLAS systems
4.6. BAE Systems UK: smart skin for aircraft then cars and dams
4.7. Composites evolve to add electronic functionality
4.7.1. Reasons, achievements, timeline 1940-2030

5.1. Smart materials
5.1.1. Comparisons, uses
5.1.2. Fiat car of the future
5.2. Printed and flexible electronics
5.2.1. Introduction and examples
5.2.2. Basic printed modules
5.2.3. Bendable then conformal photovoltaics
5.2.4. Printed electronics in structural electronics
5.3. 3D printing
5.3.1. Introduction
5.3.2. New materials
5.3.3. Adding electronic and electrical functions
5.3.4. The future

6.1. Many forms of structural supercapacitor
6.2. Fundamentals
6.3. Structural batteries and fuel cells

7.1. Boeing, USA
7.2. Canatu
7.3. Neotech, Germany
7.4. Odyssian Technology, USA
7.5. Paper Battery Co., USA
7.6. Soligie
7.7. TactoTek, Finland

1.1. Global problems in certain applicational sectors
1.2. Benefits and challenges of structural electronics)
1.3. Benefits of structural electronics in different structures
1.4. Application patterns in current materials and processes
1.5. Criteria for a component to be most suitable for subsuming into SE
1.6. Some of the benefits of replacing conventional electronic and electric components and dumb structures with structural electronics by applicational sector most needing them
1.7. Very approximate estimate of the structural electronics market 2015 and 2025 $billion globally
1.8. Market forecast by component type for 2014-2024 in US $ billions, for printed and potentially printed electronics including organic, inorganic and composites 1.9. IDTechEx WSN forecast 2014-2024 with RTLS for comparison
1.10. Ten year forecasts for printed sensors (US$ million)
1.11. Electric vehicles market value (US$ billion) forecasts by vehicle type 2013-2025
3.1. Enabling technologies for present and future structural electronics
4.1. Example of demonstrated (in grey) and envisaged (in green) smart skin for inanimate objects and examples of organisations involved. Largest markets in red. Very approximate estimate of global market size 2025 $ billion.
4.2. NASA Sans EC open coil arrays as aircraft smart skin compared with metal mesh
4.3. Composites to electronic composites: objectives, achievements, future prospects 1940-2030
5.1. Examples of smart materials and their functions, challenges and potential uses in structural electronics
1.1. Some future applications of structural electronics
1.2. Maturity and sophistication of applications of structural electronics by sector showing strong adoption in yellow, intermediate in green and later adoption in magenta
1.3. Precursors of structural electronics in yellow, transitioning to established technology in green, and speculative dreams in magenta
1.4. Some possible structures of multilayer multifunctional electronic smart skin
1.5. Very approximate estimate of the structural electronics market 2015 and 2025 $billion globally
1.6. Market forecast by component type for 2014-2024 in US $ billions, for printed and potentially printed electronics including organic, inorganic and composites 1.7. Total WSN market $M
1.8. Market forecast for printed sensors to 2024 (in $ million)
2.1. Some applications and potential applications of structural electronics in aerospace
2.2. Smart composite actuator concept
2.3. Slotted Waveguide Antenna Stiffened Structure SWASS
2.4. Some applications and potential applications of structural electronics in cars
2.5. Supercapacitor car bodywork replaces traction batteries experimentally
2.6. Supercapacitor car trunk lid, experimental
2.7. Printed OLED lighting on and under car roof plus printed organic photovoltaics on the roof all as integrated structural electronics in a Daimler concept car 2.8. Some applications and potential applications of structural electronics in consumer goods and home appliances
2.9. Some applications and potential applications of structural electronics in bridges and buildings
2.10. Optimising setting of concrete using embedded sensors and sensors monitoring seismic damage and deterioration
3.1. Key formats and some key enabling technologies for structural electronics
3.2. Some of the enabling technologies for structural electronics and relationships between them
3.3. NASA nanotechnology roadmaps
3.4. NASA nanomaterials roadmap
3.5. NASA nanosensor roadmap
3.6. NASA biomimetics and bio-inspired systems
3.7. Project status at plastic electronic for different application segments
4.1. Supercapacitor smart skin on copper conducting wire or cable
4.2. NASA Sans EC open coil arrays (a) placed on aircraft (b) as array of laminar open circuit coils and (c) the shape of a typical coil used
4.3. American Semiconductor CLAS for aircraft
4.4. Flex ICs
4.5. Conformally attached FleX IC prototype with direct write flexible interconnects
4.6. Prototype smart skin
4.7. FleX transparent, thin, flexible CMOS
4.8. Envisioned production process for smart skin: conductor, insulator, simple display, power and flexibly mounted chips
4.9. Planned UAV trial of FleX smart skin
5.1. Fiat car of the future
5.2. Printed electronics power module developed under the European Community FACESS project
5.3. Types of early win and longer term project involving printed electronics 1995-2025
5.4. The Swedish Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) at the Shell Eco Marathon competition 2014
5.5. Cosmetic 3DP on structure
5.6. Timeline of 3DP applications
7.1. Spectrolab roadmap for multilayer cells
7.2. Odyssian technology that structurally integrates flex circuits and/or printed polymer circuits into conventional or composite structure often including conventional PCBs.


OLED Display Forecasts 2014-2024: The Rise Of Plastic And Flexible Displays

OLED displays are thinner, lighter, and offer better color performances compared to backlit liquid crystal displays (LCD). OLED displays are already mass produced for mobile phones and OLED will continue gaining market share against LCD technology.

The next evolution is plastic displays and flexible displays. IDTechEx expects the first flagship phone with a flexible display to ship in 2017. Based on this scenario, the market for plastic and flexible AMOLED displays will rise to $16bn by 2020.

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Glass-based displays will remain an important technology, especially in TV applications where scale-up and cost reduction are still big challenges. Flat and curved OLED TVs were recently launched by Samsung and LG. While the market for OLED TV panels will be relatively small in 2014, it will experience strong growth in the next ten years, with a projected 42% CAGR.

Report Table Of Contents


2.1. An industry transitioning from LCD manufacturing
2.2. Why flexible displays?
2.2.1. The need to differentiate
2.2.2. Enabling future form factors
2.3. Technology Roadmap: components needed for a flexible OLED display
2.4. Technology roadmap: OLED televisions

3.1. Samsung Display (SDC)
3.1.2. Novaled acquisition
3.1.3. A3 plant
3.1.4. OLED TV
3.1.5. Tablet displays
3.2. LG Display (LGD)
3.3. BOE
3.4. AU Optronics (AUO)
3.5. Shenzhen China Star Optoelectronics Technology (CSOT)
3.6. Visionox
3.7. Sony
3.8. Panasonic
3.9. Japan Display Inc (JDI)
3.10. Sharp
3.11. Toshiba

4.1. Printed TFT backplanes
4.1.1. Why print TFTs?
4.1.2. Japan leading the R&D in printed TFTs
4.2. Growing availability of printable OLED materials
4.2.1. Polymer OLED from Cambridge Display Technology (Sumitomo)
4.2.2. Solution processed small molecules
4.3. Inkjet Printed OLED
4.3.1. Printing vs. vapour deposition
4.3.2. Panasonic
4.3.3. Sony
4.3.4. BOE
4.3.5. AU Optronics
4.3.6. Kateeva

5.1. Mobile displays
5.2. Computers: Tablets and Notebooks
5.3. TV and monitors
5.3.1. LGD taking the lead
5.3.2. Competing technologies
5.4. Wearable electronics
5.5. Automotive and Aerospace
5.6. Industrial and professional displays
5.7. Microdisplays
5.8. Others

6.1. Definition of OLED display technologies
6.1.1. AMOLED rigid glass
6.1.2. AMOLED rigid plastic
6.1.3. AMOLED flexible
6.1.4. PMOLED
6.1.5. Segmented
6.1.6. Microdisplays
6.2. Revenue forecast by market segment
6.3. Shipment forecast by market segment
6.4. Revenue forecast by technology
6.5. Shipment forecast by technology
6.6. Details by market segment
6.6.1. Mobile phones
6.6.2. Tablets/Notebooks
6.6.3. TV and monitors
6.6.4. Wearable devices
6.6.5. Automotive and aerospace
6.6.6. Industrial/Professional displays
6.6.7. Microdisplays
6.6.8. Others
6.7. Additional figures
6.7.1. Compound annual growth rate
6.7.2. Market share for each segment
6.7.3. Revenue forecast for Plastic and Flexible OLED displays

7.1. Requirements
7.1.1. Key challenges of flexible substrates
7.1.2. Process temperature by substrate type
7.2. Benchmarking by material type
7.3. Company profiles
7.3.1. DuPont Teijin Films
7.3.2. ITRI
7.3.3. Samsung Ube Materials
7.3.4. Kolon Industries
7.3.5. Corning
7.3.6. AGC Asahi Glass

8.1. Pixel circuit in Active Matrix backplanes
8.1.1. OLED displays are current driven
8.1.2. Amorphyx: replacing TFT with diodes
8.2. Semiconductor materials
8.2.1. Benchmarking of the main technologies
8.2.2. Organic TFT
8.2.3. Metal oxide TFT
8.3. Passive matrix OLED (PMOLED)
8.4. Company profiles
8.4.1. Plastic Logic
8.4.2. CBrite
8.4.3. Arizona State University
8.4.4. SmartKem
8.4.5. Polyera
8.4.6. Flexink
8.4.7. Merck (EMD Chemicals)
8.4.8. BASF

9.1. Role of each layer
9.1. Suppliers in China
9.1.1. Beijing Aglaia Technology Development Co
9.1.2. Borun New Material Technology Co. (Borun Chemical Co)
9.1.3. Jilin Optical & Electronic Materials Co
9.1.4. Visionox
9.1.5. Xi\’an Ruilian Modern Electronic Chemicals Co., Ltd
9.2. Suppliers in Europe
9.2.1. Heraeus
9.2.2. Merck
9.2.3. Novaled
9.2.4. Cynora
9.2. Shadow mask vs. White OLED
9.2.1. Fine metal mask (FMM)
9.2.2. Yellow emitter with color filters
9.2.3. White OLED approach
9.3. Subpixel layouts
9.3. Suppliers in Japan
9.3.1. Hodogaya
9.3.2. Idemitsu Kosan
9.3.3. JNC (ex Chisso)
9.3.4. Konica Minolta
9.3.5. Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation
9.3.6. Mitsui Chemicals
9.3.7. Nippon Steel & Sumikin Chemical
9.3.8. Nissan Chemical Industries
9.3.9. Sumitomo Chemical
9.3.10. Toray Industries
9.4. Suppliers in Korea
9.4.1. Cheil Industries
9.4.2. Daejoo Electronic Materials Company
9.4.3. Doosan Corporation ElectroMaterials
9.4.4. Dow Chemical
9.4.5. Duksan Hi-Metal
9.4.6. LG Chem
9.4.7. Sun Fine Chemical Co (SFC)
9.4. Table of suppliers
9.5. Suppliers in Taiwan
9.5.1. E-Ray Optoelectronics
9.5.2. Luminescence Technology Co.
9.5.3. Nichem Fine Technology
9.6. Suppliers in USA
9.6.1. DuPont
9.6.2. Plextronics (Solvay)
9.6.3. Universal Display Corporation

10.1. Developed for touch, used in displays
10.1. Company profiles
10.1.1. Blue Nano
10.1.2. Cambrios
10.1.3. CNano
10.1.4. Canatu
10.1.5. NanoIntegris
10.1.6. Heraeus
10.1.7. Agfa
10.2. A range of technologies available
10.3. Table of suppliers

11.1. Why encapsulation is needed
11.1.1. Organic semiconductors are sensitive to air and moisture
11.1.2. Requirements for barrier films
11.1.3. Different ways barriers are implemented
11.1.4. Dyad concept
11.2. Different barrier technologies available
11.2.1. Pros and cons of each approach
11.2.2. List of technology suppliers
11.3. Vitex Technology (Samsung)
11.4. Flexible glass
11.5. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)
11.5.1. Beneq
11.5.2. Encapsulix
2.1. Technology roadmap for flexible OLED displays
2.2. Technology roadmap for OLED televisions
3.1. LGD flexible OLED panel
3.2. Display production in mainland China
5.1. Mobile phone brands with Samsung Display OLED panels
6.1. OLED display market size by segments ($ million)
6.2. OLED display market size by segments (M unit)
6.3. OLED display market by display type ($ million)
6.4. OLED display market by display type (M unit)
8.1. Comparison of OTFT against other technologies
8.2. Various flexible display demonstrators made with OTFT
8.3. Current status of IGZO v.s a-Si and LTPS
8.4. Various flexible display demonstrators made with oxide TFT
9.1. Suppliers of OLED materials
9.2. Material sales
10.1. Table of suppliers
11.1. Water vapor and oxygen transmission rates of various materials
11.2. Requirements of barrier materials
11.3. Dyads or inorganic layers on polymer substrates: main performance metrics for some of the most important developers

2.1. Display value chain
2.2. Difference between OLED and LCD
2.3. Evolution of TFT-LCD glass substrate size
2.4. Glass substrate sizes by generation
2.5. Sizes from Gen 1 to Gen 10
2.6. Multiple displays per glass sheet
2.7. Example of increasing TV sizes
2.8. Selling points of flexible displays
2.9. Flexible displays will fill the gap which arises from the demand for more portable devices but larger screen sizes
2.10. Possible evolution of form factors for mobile phones
2.11. Possible evolution of form factors for tablets
2.12. Basic stack structure of AMLCD and AMOLED
2.13. Roadmap towards flexible AMOLED displays and flexible electronics devices
3.1. Samsung AMOLED production
3.2. Expected revenue growth for Samsung Display
3.3. Choice of TFT technology for LCD and OLED
3.4. Samsung\’s introduction to Youm
3.5. Samsung\’s involvement in the key technologies for flexible OLED
3.6. Samsung CapEx plan
3.7. 55\” and 77\” curved OLED TV by LG
3.8. WRGB OLED structure from LG
3.9. Plastic OLED display at SID 2013
3.10. Face sealing encapsulation
3.11. Laser assisted release
3.12. Flexible display roadmap by LG Display
3.13. AMOLED development from 2011 to 2013
3.14. AMOLED technology for TV application
3.15. BOE backplane technology development
3.16. Flexible display rolled at 20mm curvature radius
3.17. Structure of the flexible OLED display
3.18. AUO OLED history
3.19. Flexible 4.3\” display demonstrated in 2010
3.20. Flexible 5\” AMOLED display presented at SID2014
3.21. Shenzhen CSOT AMOLED roadmap
3.22. Flexible PMOLED backplane
3.23. Structure of the flexible PMOLED panel
3.24. Visionox AMOLED project
3.25. 3.5 inch LTPS flexible full-color AMOLED
3.26. Super Top Emission
3.27. Rollable 4.1\” display presented in 2010
3.28. Panasonic 4K 56\” OLED TV at CES 2013
3.29. Structure of a 4\” OLED displays made on a PEN substrate
3.30. JDI strategy
3.31. Sharp\’s TFT technologies
3.32. Flexible display with IGZO backplane presented at SID 2013
3.33. Flexible 3.4\” QHD OLED display by Sharp
3.34. Sharp and Pixtronic MEMS
3.35. Comparison between IGZO with a-Si and poly-Si
3.36. Flexible AMOLED panel fabrication
3.37. Photograph of the 10.2\” flexible OLED display
4.1. Traditional v.s. printing methods
4.2. Many printable semiconductor materials
4.3. Device structure
4.4. Electrical properties of the printed TFTs
4.5. Fully printed, organic, thin-film transistor array
4.6. Organic TFT based on ambient conductive metal nanoparticles
4.7. Formation of organic semiconductor layer
4.8. Transfer characteristics of printed OTFT
4.9. Screen printed array
4.10. Device structure with floating gate
4.11. Offset based printing method
4.12. Devices demonstrated by Toppan Printing
4.13. Electrophoretic display with printed TFT array
4.14. Electrophoretic display made with a printed TFT backplane at 200 ppi
4.15. Inkjet printing process
4.16. Photograph of the printed oxide TFTs on glass substrate
4.17. PLED performance data
4.18. Lifetime and efficiency
4.19. Printing process
4.20. UDC printable OLED materials
4.21. Printing seen as an area of future growth (presented in June 2014)
4.22. Characteristics of OLED production technologies
4.23. Development of OLED printing
4.24. Comparison of OLED printing versus OLED vapor deposition
4.25. Panasonic 4K 56\” OLED TV at CES 2013
4.26. Sony 3\” printed OLED demonstrator at SID 2011
4.27. Printing process in 3 steps
4.28. Structure of the hybrid printed OLED structure
4.29. Pixel structure of the 17\” printed OLED display
4.30. Development of EL technology 1
4.31. Development of EL technology 2
4.32. Device structure
4.33. Picture of the 65\” printed TV
4.34. Inkjet printing equipment designed for OLED display production
4.35. Kateeva YIELDjet
4.36. Improving the T95 lifetime
5.1. S-Stripe pixel layout on the Motorola Moto X (left) and the Samsung Galaxy Note 2 (right)
5.2. Samsung Galaxy Round and LG G Flex
5.3. Concept of foldable phone display
5.4. Concept of a rollable phone display
5.5. Samsung Galaxy Tab S
5.6. The world\’s first OLED tablet computer
5.7. 55\” and 77\” curved OLED TV by LG
5.8. Comparison with a conventional TV
5.9. 55-in Crystal LED prototype
5.10. Gear Fit smartwatch with 1.84\” Curved Super AMOLED (432×128)
5.11. Gear Fit curved display
5.12. 1.3\” PMOLED in a smartwatch
5.13. LG Lifeband Touch with monochrome display
5.14. Futaba PMOLED
5.15. OLED watch display
5.16. Flexible display prototype driven by OTFT
5.17. PMOLED display used in Chrysler\’s Grand Cherokee
5.18. PMOLED display used in GM\’s Chevrolet Corvette
5.19. OLED display in the Lexus RX can display graphics and text
5.20. Automotive displays from Futaba
5.21. Digital rear-view mirror on the Audi R18 race car
5.22. BMW M6 OLED display
5.23. BMW M Performance Alcantara steering wheel with built-in PMOLED display
5.24. AMOLED in automotive
5.25. Sony 25\” professional monitor
5.26. eMagin\’s microdisplays
5.27. Samsung NX30 with a 3\” AMOLED display
5.28. Microsoft Zune HD with 3.3\” display
5.29. The original Sony PSP Vita with a 5\” OLED display
5.30. Game controller with a small display
6.1. OLED display market size by segments ($ million)
6.2. OLED display market size by segments (M unit)
6.3. OLED display market by display type ($ million)
6.4. OLED display market by display type (M unit)
6.5. Mobile phones ($ million)
6.6. Mobile phones (M units)
6.7. Tablet/Notebook displays ($ million)
6.8. Tablet/Notebook displays (M units)
6.9. TV and monitors ($ million)
6.10. TV and monitors (M units)
6.11. Wearable devices ($ million)
6.12. Wearable devices (M units)
6.13. Automotive and aerospace ($ million)
6.14. Automotive and aerospace (M units)
6.15. Industrial/Professional displays ($ million)
6.16. Industrial/Professional displays (M units)
6.17. Microdisplays ($ millions)
6.18. Microdisplays (M units)
6.19. Others ($ million)
6.20. Others (M units)
6.21. CAGR by market segment
6.22. OLED market share for each segment as percentage of total market size
6.23. Revenue forecast for plastic and flexible OLED displays
7.1. Glass transition temperature (Tg) for various plastic substrates
7.2. Upper operating temperature
7.3. Heat stabilised PET and PEN
7.4. Benchmarking based on 8 parameters
7.5. FlexUP process for display backplane using a non-sticking debonding layer
7.6. Key technologies for Samsung\’s flexible AMOLED displays
8.1. Typical active matrix circuit for LCD, using one TFT and one storage capacitor per pixel
8.2. (A) Example of a basic 2T1C circuit. (B) 4T1C circuit implementing voltage compensation
8.3. Benchmarking of the semiconductor materials
8.4. Improvement in carrier mobility of organic semiconductors over the last 30 years
8.5. Organic materials can be rolled over a small radius
8.6. Comparison between metal oxide and organic TFTs
8.7. Foldable display by SEL and Nokia
8.8. Tri-Fold Flexible AMOLED
8.9. Historical annual sales from various suppliers of AMOLED and PMOLED
8.10. Curved PMOLED display
8.11. Film OLED product launch plan
8.12. Glass-free OLED film
8.13. Flexible PMOLED backplane
8.14. Structure of the flexible PMOLED panel
9.1. Typical OLED material stack in bottom emission OLED
9.2. Function of each layer
9.3. Various configurations for OLED materials
9.4. Distinction between bottom-emission and top-emission OLED
9.5. Vapour deposition using fine mesh mesh
9.6. Alternatives to FMM
9.7. Two-mask display architecture
9.8. Simulation results for the two-mask display architecture
9.9. WOLED was initially developed by Kodak
9.10. Principles of tandem white OLED
9.11. White OLED architecture used in microdisplays
9.12. iPhone 5 (LCD), traditional RGB stripe
9.13. Galaxy S3, Pentile S-stripe layout
9.14. Galaxy S4, Diamond layout
9.15. Galaxy S5 (diamond layout):
9.16. Hodogaya business structure
9.17. R&D activity of Idemitsu
9.18. OLED material production plant, Paju
9.19. Current performance of Konica Minolta
9.20. Proprietary blue phosphorescent emitter
9.21. Priority initiatives by sector
9.22. Cheil Industries growth strategy
9.23. Cheil\’s OLED materials sales
9.24. Color performance from SFC
9.25. Facilities in Korea
9.26. UDC presentation slides
9.27. UDC historical revenues
10.1. Benchmarking different TCF and TCG technologies
11.1. OLED and OPV have the most demanding requirements
11.2. Schematic diagrams for encapsulated structures a) conventional b) laminated c) deposited in situ
11.3. Scanning electron micrograph image of a barrier film cross section
11.4. Design compromise for flexible barriers
11.5. Lab WVTR achieved (in g/sq.m./day)in research for each of the companies involved in the development of flexible encapsulation solutions
11.6. Surge in patent publications
11.7. Examples of polymer multi-layer (PML) surface planarization a) OLED cathode separator structure b) high aspect ratio test structure
11.8. Vitex multilayer deposition process
11.9. SEM cross section of Vitex Barix material with four dyads
11.10. Optical transmission of Vitex Barix coating
11.11. Edge seal barrier formation by deposition through shadow masks
11.12. Three dimensional barrier structure. Polymer is shown in red, and oxide (barrier) shown in blue
11.13. Schematic of flexible OLED with hybrid encapsulation
11.14. Corning\’s Flexible glass with protective tabbing on the edges

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Hybrid and Electric Cars information: Hybrid and Pure Electric Cars 2014-2024 Technologies, Markets, Forecasts

ResearchMoz include new market research report”Hybrid and Pure Electric Cars 2014-2024: Technologies, Markets, Forecasts” to its huge collection of research reports.

Browse PDF – Hybrid and Pure Electric Cars Market 2014-2024

E-cars are oversupplied and changing in all respects but in this frenzy of birth and death the future is being created with hybrid cars rapidly gaining market share now and sale of pure electric cars likely to take off in the second half of the coming decade as certain technical and cost challenges are resolved. Toyota and Tesla have hugely benefitted from correct market positioning but now Toyota is betting strongly on fuel cell hybrids and Tesla on mainstream pure electric cars – both graveyards for many companies in the past. A vicious shakeout of car and battery manufacturers has commenced with the winners expecting riches beyond the dreams of avarice.

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Table of Contents

1.1. The market for electric cars
1.2. MicroEVs/quadricycles etc
1.3. Hybrid vs pure EV forecasts
1.4. Will cars be plugged in during a journey?
1.5. Geographical demand
1.6. Progress of the market leader Toyota
1.7. Golf cars will have little growth
1.8. Disruptive technology change
1.9. Radically new components
1.9.1. Electric motors
1.9.2. Power electronics
1.9.3. Wide band gap semiconductors
1.9.4. Traction batteries
1.10. Pure electric vehicles in Europe
1.11. Toyota Simplifies Priorities: Tesla Gets Lonely

2.1. The world wakes up to global warming and oil running out
2.2. Danger signs
2.3. Government support
2.4. Rapid increase in number of manufacturers
2.4.1. Can the grid cope?
2.5. How green are electric vehicles really?

3.1. The arguments against
3.2. Deja vu
3.2.1. Golf EVs
3.2.2. Skateboard golf
3.2.3. Energy positive solar car

4.1. Construction and advantages of hybrids
4.2. Evolution
4.3. Market drivers
4.3.1. Leading indicators
4.4. History of hybrids and planned models to 2014

5.1. Three key enabling technologies become six
5.2. Many new forms of range extender
5.3. Supercapacitors
5.4. Energy harvesting
5.5. Printed electronics and electrics
5.6. Structural components and smart skin
5.7. Innovative charging
5.8. Military land vehicles and in-wheel motors
5.9. Third generation traction batteries

6.1. Series vs parallel hybrid
6.2. Modes of operation of hybrids
6.2.1. Plug in hybrids
6.2.2. Charge-depleting mode
6.2.3. Blended mode
6.2.4. Charge-sustaining mode
6.2.5. Mixed mode
6.3. Microhybrid is a misnomer
6.4. Deep hybridisation
6.5. Hybrid vehicle price premium
6.6. Battery cost and performance are key
6.7. Tradeoff of energy storage technologies
6.8. Ultracapacitors=supercapacitors
6.9. Where supercapacitors fit in
6.10. Advantages and disadvantages
6.11. Can supercapacitors replace batteries?
6.12. Supercabatteries or bacitors
6.13. What is a range extender?
6.14. What will be required of a range extender?
6.15. Three generations of range extender
6.15.1. First generation range extender technology
6.15.2. Second generation range extender technology
6.15.3. Third generation range extender technology
6.16. Fuel cell range extenders
6.17. Big effect of many modest electricity sources combined
6.18. Energy harvesting on and in electric vehicles
6.19. Trend to high voltage
6.20. Component choices for energy density/ power density
6.21. Trend to distributed components
6.22. Trend to flatness then smart skin

7.1. Car production
7.2. Cars and crude oil
7.2.1. Technical progress
7.3. Hybrid cars
7.3.1. History of hybrid car sales
7.4. Forecasts to 2020
7.5. Pure EVs
7.5.1. Total market
7.5.2. Will sales of pure electric cars overtake hybrids?
7.5.3. Market excluding golf cars
7.5.4. Golf cars
7.5.5. Fuel cell EVs
7.6. Battery trends
7.7. Gas stations by country
7.7.1. What level of recharging infrastructure is needed?

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Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Devices Applications & Opportunities: Latest Market Trends Research Report

ResearchMoz include new market research report”Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Market 2014-2024: Devices, Applications, Opportunities: Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecast” to its huge collection of research reports.

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The new applications are varied and the vertical markets benefiting from new devices range from condition monitoring in industrial environments, smart metering in energy market segments, to thermoelectric applications in vehicles, either terrestrial or other.

This report gives an overview of devices, materials and manufacturing processes, with a specific focus on emerging technologies that allow for new functionality, form factor and application in various demanding environments. Whether it is operation in high temperatures or corrosive environments, applications with increased safety demands or components that need to be thin, flexible, or even stretchable, there is a lot of research and development work worldwide which is highlighted.

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Included in the report are interviews with potential adopters of thermoelectric energy harvesters and their views of the impact that the technology could have over their respective industries. Some of the application sectors include:

Waste heat recovery systems in vehicles: A large number of car companies, including Volkswagen, VOLVO, FORD and BMW in collaboration with NASA have been developing thermoelectric waste heat recovery systems in-house, each achieving different types of performance but all of them expecting to lead to improvements of 3-5% in fuel economy while the power generated out of these devices could potentially reach up to 1200W.
Wireless sensor network adoption.
Wireless sensors powered by thermogenerators in environments where temperature differentials exist would lead to avoiding issues with battery lifetime and reliability. It would also lead to the ability to move away from wired sensors, which are still the solution of choice when increased reliability of measurement is necessary.
Some applications have low enough power demands to operate with small temperature differentials, as small as a few degrees in some cases.
These types of developments increase adoption trends.
Consumer applications: In these applications, the type of solution that thermogenerators provide varies:
it could be related to saving energy when cooking by utilising thermo-powered cooking sensors, powering mobile phones, watches or other consumer electronics, even body sensing could become more widespread with sensory wristbands, clothing or athletic apparel that monitor vitals such as heart rate, body temperature, etc.

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ResearchMoz is the one stop online destination to find and buy market research reports & Industry Analysis. We fulfill all your research needs spanning across industry verticals with our huge collection of market research reports. We provide our services to all sizes of organizations and across all industry verticals and markets. Our Research Coordinators have in-depth knowledge of reports as well as publishers and will assist you in making an informed decision by giving you unbiased and deep insights on which reports will satisfy your needs at the best price.

Wearable Technology for Animals 2015-2025

ResearchMoz include new market research report”Wearable Technology for Animals 2015-2025: Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecast” to its huge collection of research reports.

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Wearable technology for humans is a hot topic as evidenced by the large sales of our February report on this topic and the dramatic Google Trends under Wearable. People are therefore asking whether wearable technology for animals will also thrive in future and the 300 suppliers and many start-ups now appearing with wearable technology for animals to sell want to understand the big picture and the competition and evolving market. The big actual and potential users from farms to horse studs may also need input.

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This report concerns the needs, technology and markets for wearable electronics for animals, from pets to livestock and wild animals. We include the back-up equipment and systems and devices that are ingested to rest in a stomach of an animal. We also include devices implanted under the skin.

There are currently about 300 manufacturers of such things in the world, the highest percentage in China, making very basic product at lowest price, followed by the USA then other countries we identify, the latter including the primary innovators. Over the coming decade, manufacturers will rise to 500 as the value market increases more than 2.5 times. Most of these devices and their systems are used in the USA and Europe followed by Australia where RFID tagging of cattle is mandatory.

RFID ear tags for cows then non-RFID collars on dogs for many purposes are currently the most popular forms of wearable electronics on animals across the world. In 2025, livestock tagging will still be most popular but it will much more often involve diagnostics. Indeed, medical diagnostic tagging of livestock, pets and endangered species will become commonplace. Medical treatment using electronics and electrics will also be steadily adopted following today’s practice on humans with heating, cooling, iontophoretic drug delivery and so on, eventually even in response to the fitted diagnostics.

The animals most likely to employ wearable electronics in volume in the next decade are those controlled by humans notably certain livestock, work animals and pets that we identify but conservation of wild species will also increase in number and sophistication.

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ResearchMoz is the one stop online destination to find and buy market research reports & Industry Analysis. We fulfill all your research needs spanning across industry verticals with our huge collection of market research reports. We provide our services to all sizes of organizations and across all industry verticals and markets. Our Research Coordinators have in-depth knowledge of reports as well as publishers and will assist you in making an informed decision by giving you unbiased and deep insights on which reports will satisfy your needs at the best price.

Graphene Markets, Technologies and Opportunities 2014-2024

ResearchMoz include new market research report”: Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecast” to its huge collection of research reports.

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Graphene markets will grow from around $20 million in 2014 to more than $390 million in 2024 at the material level. The market will be split across many application sectors; each attracting a different type of graphene manufactured using different means. The market today remains dominated by research interest but the composition will change as other sectors such as energy storage and composites grow. The value chain will also transform as companies will move up the chain to offer intermediary products, capturing more value and cutting the time to market and uncertainty for end users.

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Interest in graphene remains strong. Companies on the market multiply every year and academic investment continues to pour in. For example, the European Union has committed 1 billion Euros over a decade to research on graphene and other 2D materials, while the Korean and UK governments have each, respectively, committed at least $40 and £24 million in the past two years. At the same time, several graphene companies have floated on the public markets, fetching large valuations and therefore demonstrating the continued appetite for investment in graphene. IDTechEx counts approximately $60 million of investment in private graphene companies over the years.

Graphene is still in search of its killer application that delivers a unique value proposition or a first mover advantage. In the absence of such applications, the commercialisation process remains a substitution game. This is not meritless as graphene can target a broad spectrum of applications including energy storage, composites, functional inks, electronics, etc. The value proposition of graphene, the competitive landscape, the technical requirements, and the likely graphene manufacturing techniques will be different for each sector, resulting in market fragmentation. Therefore, the graphene market will in fact grow to consist of multiple subsets.

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Functional inks are technologically the lowest hanging fruit for graphene suppliers. These inks offer low temperature processing, compatibility with several printing processes, and also ruggedness. They however occupy an awkward position in the conductivity ladder. They sit many orders of magnitude below metallic inks and pastes (silver and copper) but just above carbon paste. They must therefore identify sectors where metallic inks/pastes grossly overshoot the market requirements or sectors where carbon pastes just undershoot. The main target applications are RFID and smart packaging. These markets are characterised by low material consumption per unit therefore high volume adoption is needed to generate profitable operations. A potential differentiation from carbon paste can come in the form of transparency, which is fast being developed. Energy storage is a very attractive target market for graphene. Supercapacitor is a high-growth sector. IDTechEx expects this market to register a 30% CAGR over the coming decade. Graphene may deliver value here thanks to high surface-to-volume ratio and early laboratory results, although technical hurdles that prevent utilisation of the full surface and in-plane conductivity remain. At the same time, activated carbon remains well-entrenched with prices as low as 5 $/Kg. There is however much interest and work behind the scenes and we expect the market to grow rapidly after 2019. Several products have also been launched to target the Li ion market, which is an attractive sector thanks to its sheet size. Here, benchmarking performance is more difficult owing to the multiplicity of chemistries and designs of Li ion batteries.

The transparent conductive film market is a also large and growing market. ITO films remain the dominant solution on the market and leaders here are ramping up the production capacity. The market however is transforming thanks to new entrants and also drivers such as growing needs for ultra-low sheet resistance, mechanical robustness and lower prices. Many alternatives are emerging including silver nanowires, metal mesh, PEDOT, and carbon nanotubes. Graphene can also be a transparent conductor but its performance is at best on a part with ITO on film, and is therefore not positioned to benefit from industry trends unless major innovation happens on the production side particularly around the CVD transfer process. Other electronic markets such as transistors are out of reach for graphene due to the absence of a bandgap.

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The composite sector is also large and fragmented with many needs. Here, graphene can deliver value as an additive. Here, graphene nanoplatelets will be used. A strong point for graphene is that it can create multi-functionality. In other words, it can help increase electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, impermeability, mechanical strength, etc. A key value add will be achieving the equivalent of, or better than, what graphite or black carbon can do with much less material usage. The lower %wt will also enable a slight room for premium charging

The report provides the following:

A comprehensive and quantitative technology assessment covering all the main manufacturing techniques, highlighting key challenges and unresolved technical hurdles, and the latest developments
Ten-year forecasts at the material level segmented by application
Detailed breakdown of company revenues and investments
Detailed sector by sector market assessment outlining the addressable market size (where relevant) and assessing graphene’s existing and potential value proposition vis-a-vis competition (ITO, graphite, activated carbon, silver nanowires, black carbon, metallic inks, etc)
Competitive landscape listing all the major competitors and their production technique and key products
Strategic insights on the state of the industry and key trends/drivers

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3D Bioprinting Industry 2014-2024

ResearchMoz include new market research report”3D Bioprinting 2014-2024: Applications, Markets and Player: Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecast” to its huge collection of research reports.

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3D bioprinting constitutes a raft of technologies, commercial and not-yet commercial, which have the potential to significantly impact a number of major markets, including in vitro testing for more efficient drug discovery and toxicity testing of personal consumer products, as well as the clinical fields relating to implant/grafting of human tissue. Though not yet employed within its addressable markets (current bioprinter sales and products are to research and development organisations only), the potential for rapid deployment in some areas already exists, subject to adequate funding being made available.

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Drug discovery

Drug discovery is a highly expensive process which in most cases will end in failure to gain regulatory clearance (see figure 1). The reason for this high failure rate is related to the lack of sufficiently accurate pre-clinical (prior to human volunteer) testing methodologies which have to date been limited to 2-dimensional human cell assays together with animal testing.

Related Reports 

3D Printing in Medical Applications Market (Medical Implants (Dental, Orthopedic, Cranio-maxillofacial), Surgical Guides, Surgical Instruments, Bio-engineered Products) – Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2013 – 2019

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Since its introduction over a decade ago, 3D printing as a technology has revolutionized manufacturing as a process. Ever increasing cost pressures on medical device manufacturers and their intense need to introduce innovative products has forced them to adopt 3D printing as a means to reduce the manufacturing life cycle and almost completely eliminate the traditional prototyping process. Traditional manufacturing techniques are based on the subtractive method where, the required product is created by cutting or drilling of the base material. 3D printing builds the desired products layer-by-layer through addition of materials. Hence, this process is also called as additive manufacturing. Although, 3D printing is actually a subset of additive manufacturing, it used synonymously with additive manufacturing in the industry.

This report includes an estimation of the global market for applications of 3D printing in the healthcare segment in terms of value (USD million) for the period 2013-2019, considering 2012 as the base year. In addition, current market trends and recent developments are taken into consideration while determining the growth rate of the global 3D printing medical applications market.

The overall 3D printing market for medical applications has been categorized on the basis of its applications, raw materials, and technology. The applications market has been focused only on the medical applications of 3D printing and further segmentation has been provided which includes implants, surgical guides, surgical instruments and bioengineered products. The 3D printing technology market includes those technologies which are used extensively in medical applications for manufacturing bio-models. These technologies comprises of laser beam melting, electron beam melting, photopolymerization and droplet deposition manufacturing. The raw materials market includes the market focused for use in medical applications. The raw materials market comprises of metals, alloys, polymers, ceramics and others. The market for all these segments and sub-segments is estimated for the period 2013 – 2019 in terms of value (USD million).

The geographic landscape covers the major regions, namely North America, Europe, Asia and Rest of the World (RoW). Similarly market share analysis for the year 2012 has been provided in the competitive landscape chapter of the report.

Global 3D Printing (Polyjet, FDM, SLS, SLA) Market – Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast, 2013 – 2019

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The 3D printing market has seen rapid growth in recent years due to its increasing applications across different sectors Such as consumer products and electronics, automotive, medical, industrial and aerospace. Decreasing cost of 3D printers and its increasing adoption across the government and education sectors is further expected to spur the demand in the coming years. Additionally, 3D printer manufacturers are continuously focusing on the development of new 3D printing materials, which would provide improved surface finish and high strength 3D models.

This market has been segmented by use, by technology, by application and by geography. It also includes the drivers, restraints and opportunities, Porter’s five forces analysis and value chain of the 3D printing market. The study highlights current market trends and provides forecast from 2013 to 2019. We have also highlighted future trends in the market that will impact demand.

By geography, the market has been segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and RoW. In addition, the market attractiveness analysis provided in the report highlights key investing areas in this industry. The report will help manufacturers, suppliers and distributors to understand the present and future trends in this market and formulate their strategies accordingly.

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ResearchMoz is the one stop online destination to find and buy market research reports & Industry Analysis. We fulfill all your research needs spanning across industry verticals with our huge collection of market research reports. We provide our services to all sizes of organizations and across all industry verticals and markets. Our Research Coordinators have in-depth knowledge of reports as well as publishers and will assist you in making an informed decision by giving you unbiased and deep insights on which reports will satisfy your needs at the best price.

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